Assorted historical information
from combinedTable of Contents
research in 1994 History Leads and Resource
by Bob Hoff
I did these on an iirregular basis when I was Park Historian.
Hopefully the discovery of some of this information leads you to the discovery of other information
Note: Some article titles remain to be italicized and book titles to be underlined.
Note: All bats are from "how-to-draw-a-cartoon-bat-on-line" I wish these were my drawings. Cute, huh?
94.02 Page 7
1. "Frustrated Lovers" (the Queen's Chamber) - Ranger W.O. Jones claimed that the rock was named by Robert Ripley of "Believe It Or Not".
2. Interview with Mr. Frank Hodnett of the Cavern Supply Co.; His dad, "Yo-Yo" Hodnett worked for Cavern Supply Co. and the National Park Service. Also, his mother worked as a nurse for the National Park Service.
3. Mrs. Elizabeth Sullivan recounts her visit to Carlsbad Caverns National Park in 1927, 1942, and 1993.
4. April 13, 1969 memorandum form Park Naturalist Neal R. Bullington to Park Guides.
5. Current-Argus, June 8, 1927, article entitled New Company to Sell at Cavern.
6. Current-Argus, June 8, 1927, article Children Under 16 Now See Cave Free contains an error about children under age 5.
7. In May 1930, ticket office was reorganized from one window to 5 windows.
8. Book Review: Bat Bomb: WW II's Other Secret Weapon by Jack Couffer. This book describes the "accident" at the Carlsbad Air Force Base.
9. Discussion - Superintendent Tom Boles "Right vs. Wrong" or "More Appropriate vs. Less Appropriate, Due to Changing Situations".
10. Discussion of "Guadalupe Basketmakers".
11. Article - The Slaughter Canyon (New) Cave Pictograph Site, Carlsbad Cavern National Park, New Mexico, by Michael and Barbara Bilbo.
12. Special thanks to...Lolita Himebaugh, Suzy Caddell, and Bobby Crisman.
PAGES 11-19 --ATTACHMENTS FOR 94.02
94.03 Page 20
1. Recollection of former Summer Seasonal Ranger 1947-1951.
2. Mrs. Jean Cramer of Danville, CA remembers her visit to Carlsbad Cavern National Park 1930-1933.
3. Place name Notes: "Back Door" and "Rat Hole".
4. Interview with former Chief Ranger "Tex" Worley, 1943 - He recalls: 1. the use of 3 generators. 2. Rock of Ages Ceremony. 3. Jim White. 4. Guano Mining operations.
5. Problems with wild burros. 6. Accidental dynamite blast resulting in the death of Earl Rupe.7. 1944 high speed chase and shootout (one of the law enforcement officers was my wife's Dad--Cruz Fernandez--; he chased and brought his fleeing suspect back alive; his partnershot and killed the man that he chased. 8. His brother, T. Cecil Worley's experiences as a guide and power plant operator for CCNP 1930-1933. 9. Supt Boles method of dealing with procrastination. 10. White City and the paper published there by the Beadle Publishing Co.
94.04 Page 26
1. March 18, 1994, Diane White (Supt's Assistant) presented a speech on the Women's Suffrage, entitled "In Every Generation Action Frees Our Dreams".
2. Paul Wellman's article The Boss of Carlsbad Caverns Is a Student of Both Nature & Human Nature, explains how Tom Boles became a "Colonel".
3. Note on WW II.
4. Donald Standiford's 1964 article entitled History of the Cavern Trail Development.
5. Puzzle Pieces - New Mexico Room & Mystery Room.
6. Photo: Mr. Ira Stockwell.
7. CCC History, 1938-1942: Listing of typical CCC jobs and a map of the Rattlesnake Springs CCC Camp.
8. Article - A Brief History of the Civilian Conservation Corps & Their Local Impact, by Dave Hutson. Also, see History Leads & Resources 1992, 92.02 for info on buildings built here by CCC.
9. Discussion on Interpretation.
10. March 24, 1994, SCA Carri Regan and Historian Bob Hoff interviewed Ben Gilmore of Guadalupe Mountain National Park, who knew Jim White.
PAGES 30-38 --ATTACHMENTS FOR 94.04
94.05 Page 39
1. Discussion - Eagle's Roost expedition, lead by David Ek in Mid-July 1989.
2. Profile of 4 former employees: 1. Horace "Harry" Morelli, 1956. 2. Gary Mattlock, 1966. 3. Donald R. Standiford, 1963. and 4. James K. Baker, 1961.
3. Discussion - Work Projects Administration (WPA), published a New Mexico Guide in 1940. CCNP was included.
PAGES 41-45 --ATTACHMENTS FOR 94.05
94.06 Page 46
1. Discussion - Author, Freeman Tilden and interpretation skills.
2. Photos: Two 1940's Rock of Ages Ceremony photos from White City Daily newspaper.
3. Rock of Ages Graduation Ceremony for the First class of "Bombardiers" from Army Air Force Advanced Flying School at Carlsbad.
4. Madge Bryan and the Nurse Guides, photo included.
5. Photo of Crystal Springs and visitors.
6. Photo of King's Palace.
7. Article written by Tom Boles.
8. Another Leslie Help, I'm Falling in the Elevator Shaft Thompson story.
9. An April 1950, copy of the "White City Daily News" was donated by Mr. Herman Nusbaum.
10. Article - December 1961, "Caverns Calm Unbroken by Project Gnome (underground atomic device)".
11. Dale Carnegie on interpretation.
12. Photo of Mrs. James Larkin White.
13. Photo: Jim White, Jr. with bat.
14. 5 Photos: 1. Dave McCollaum. 2. Willis T. Lee and Elizabeth. 3. Devil's Den. 4. Elizabeth Lee. 5. Who are these kids?
PAGES 50-65 --ATTACHMENTS FOR 94.06
94.07 Page 66
1. Some explosive news from the Dept. of Air Force/Air Force Historical Research Agency. Several interesting attachments.
2. Discussion - Attorney Richard F. Burges' efforts to promote tourism of Caverns and his idea for accessibility and tunnels.
3. Historical figure: New Mexico Deputy Sheriff, Elfego Baca (1865-1945).
4. Visitor letter: July 20, 1989--"The Curse of the Stolen Limestone".
5. Partial list of famous visitors.
6. Book Review: Dale Carnegie, How to Develop Self-Confidence & Influence People by Public Speaking.
7. Quiz: What is the name of the first National Monument and what state is it in?
PAGES 69-81 --ATTACHMENTS FOR 94.07
94.08 Page 82
1. Interview - Mr. L. B. Trone, retired Methodist minister who came to Carlsbad in 1944. This minister preached at both Jim White's and Tom Bole's funerals.
2. Audio cassette tape "M" is a re-enactment of Tom Boles doing a Rock of Ages Ceremony.
94.09 Page 85
1. Interview: Ranger Ray Hardwick, CCNP employee form 1961-1984.
2. Quiz: Who said it? "Working with guano can't be classified as a glorious occupation."
3. Former CCNP employee, Andrew Mullen answers oral history questionnaire.
4. Robert E. Houff worked here in 1970 and answered the oral history questionnaire.
5. Ethnic question raised by Baltimore, MD students.
6. In 1972, CCGMA grossed $26,000.
7. Slaughter Canyon Cave tours began on September 27, 1973.
8. Book Review: One Man's Dream, by Ruth Caier.
PAGES 88-91 --ATTACHMENTS FOR 94.09
94.10 Page 92
1. December 1944, Staff Meeting Minutes dealt with guides handling misbehaving visitors. All rangers were commissioned as a Deputy Sheriff for Eddy County but lady guides were not to ace as a police officer.
2. The Christmas issue of Rand McNally's list of the Seven Natural Wonders of the World, 1944.
3. "Chief", a park horse, was found outside the park boundaries after having been missed for 10 days.
4. On March 14, 1945, two FBI agents who were in search of 4 German prisoners of war. Were not allowed complimentary passes because there was no one in authority around.
5. December 1946, Park Naturalist, Bennet T. Gale reported that algae was forming in the King's Palace due to the lights burning longer.
6. Big Room Wheelchair in deplorable condition.
7. August 1946 - visitor, Mrs. Hurlbutt complained about cigarette smoke on the underground tours. The only non-smoking policy was issued on July 8, 1940 and concern employees only.
8. September 1946, repairs to Walnut Canyon Road require a bulldozer.
9. March 1945, Mrs. Boles while visiting a neighbor's house slipped and sprained her ankle.
10. March 1945, Naturalist Alberts reported the first visitor complain against a guide in a year.
11. May 1945, U.S. Army Health Officers condemned the Carlsbad Municipal Bathing Beach.
12. Boles generosity was abused in June 1945 by Roy Jacobs who was hauling 300 gallons of water per day to White City.
13. In a visit by Regional Director Tillotson, it was discovered that some visitors waited as long as 30 minutes for the elevator.
14. August 1945, mimeographed tour schedules were distributed at White City and two Carlsbad motels.
15. The WW II gas ration was lifted on August 18, 1945. The Staff Meeting Minutes reflected an increase of visitation at 70 and 80%.
16. Memo from Park Naturalist Bennet T. Gale to Boles about the pros and cons of the Rock of Ages Ceremony.
17. Article - "A Geologic Walking Tour of Carlsbad Caverns" by Carol Hill.
18. Banded bat is retrieved in Atengo, Jalisco, Mexico.
19. Book Review: 40 Miles a Day on Beans and Hay by Don Rickey.
94.11 Page 96
1. Slaughter Canyon Cave weekend guano miners, 1957: Mr. Roger Holstenbach and Mr. Jim Papadakis.
2. Dr. Thomas Murnane remembers the bat rabies problem.
3. Two major research guides: 1. dBase listing of parks vertical files. 2. Mr. Crisman's files.
4. 1939 Report: Geological Report on Rock Slides in Carlsbad Caverns.
5. Notes on Ranger Chris Niewold.
6. 1943 area map from Carlsbad to McKittrick Canyon.
7. Unconventional sign: "Don't pick the flowers", April 1946 by Chief Ranger Tex Worley.
8. Civil Defense initiatives 1946 and 1963.
9. On May 24, 1946, the Bat Flight Program was cancelled for Tom Boles going away party.
PAGES 99-106 --ATTACHMENTS FOR 94.11
94.12 Page 107
1. Cacti quote about beauty and treachery.
2. Near the park camping.
3. Article - "Carlsbad Cavern" by Mr. Carl C. Magee, 1927.
4. Excerpts from Dana Lee's 1924 Diary.
5. Excerpts from "Radio Talk on Science"by Willis T. Lee, August 1925.
6. Excerpt from "The Eighth Wonder" by Carl Livingston.
PAGES 111-124 --ATTACHMENTS FOR 94.12
94.13 Page 125
1. Free admission on August 25, 1994 to celebrate the establishment of the National Park Service on August 25, 1916.
2. Book Review: The Birth of the National Park Service: The Founding Years, 1913-1933, by Horace Albright.
94.14 Page 127
August 31, 1994, interview with Mr. Jim White, Jr.
94.15 Page 136
1. Superintendent Tom Boles was farsighted in cave protection.
2. Dale Smith's grandmother knew Jim White.
3. An Explosive issue: The mixture of sulphur with bat guano could be used to create explosives.
4. Altha Driver Dunwoody: One of the first women in the Caverns?
5. Carlsbad Bat Guano shipped to places other than California.
6. Granddaughter of Dave Mitchell plans to donate photos of Mitchell and Jim White, who were friends and guano mining partners.
7. Photo: Jim White, Jr. and Elizabeth Lee.
8. Where is she now? Mrs. Fanny Hill White Barron.
9. Dr. Harrison Schmitt, geologist, moon-walking astronaut and former U.S. Senator of New Mexico, turns author and writes as article on Lechuguilla Cave entitled "Gift of the Reef".
PAGES 139-145 --ATTACHMENTS FOR 94.15
94.16 Page 146
1. The Dog Canyon History Tour.
2. Welcome VIP Cheryl Munyan.
3. National Park Service Thematic Framework for History Revised. Eight notable categories.
PAGES 148-155 --ATTACHMENTS FOR 94.16
94.17 Page 159
1. Radiau Stanley Taylor worked and bunked with Jim White as a cowboy. He was around when White lost his job eventually because 'Jim was obsessed with the cave'. Mr. Taylor brought his family here in 1936.
2. Interview with Mr. Jack Rupe: Details of trail employee fatally injured in March, 1951.
3. Place names: Frustrated Lovers/Eternal Kiss.
PAGES 161-163 --ATTACHMENTS FOR 94.17
94.18 Page 164
1. 33rd Anniversary of Project Gnome.
2. Lower Cave Lowdown.
3. Research made easier: Superintendent Monthly Reports and Log are being copied and spiral bound. These reference materials will be added to the VC Library.
4. When were the guano mining buildings removed?
5. Discussion: How do we know the truth of what we learn in oral histories and informal conversations.
6. Late-breaking History Capsule Arrives.
PAGES 168-169 --ATTACHMENTS FOR 94.18
94.19 Page 170